In Vivo Pharmacology

Gastrointestinal


  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    Model DSS induced colitis in BALB/c mice
    Test system BALB/c mice
    Method Day 1 to Day 8: Administration of (Dextran sulphate sodium, 3%) in drinking water Administration of test item and reference item at predetermined time At the end of experiment animals sacrifice and biological sample collection for further evaluation
    End points
    • DAI (disease activation index)
    • Colon length
    • Colon weight
    • Spleen weight
    • Cytokine analysis & MPO assay in colon tissue homogenates
    Model Gastric Motility Using Charcoal Meal Test
    Test system Wistar rats, Male/Female, 150-170 g
    Reference Drug Metoclopramide, 10mg/kg,p.o.
    Method
    • One hour after the test item/reference drug administration each animal will be given 1 ml standard charcoal meal (10% activated charcoal suspension in 2.5% Na-CMC).
    • Animals will be sacrificed 1 h after the administration of the charcoal meal by cervical dislocation.
    • Laparatomy will be done on the rats and small intestine will be isolated carefully.
    • The length of the small intestine from pylorus to the caecum and the distance traveled by the charcoal will be measured.
    • The peristaltic index for each animal will be calculated.
    End points
    • Body weight
    • Length of distance traveled by the charcoal meal
    • Peristaltic Index
    X
  • Ulcerogenic Potential
    Model Assessment anti-ulcer activity using Indomethacin-induced ulcer model
    Test system Wistar Rat, 6-8 weeks
    Method
    • Animals will be randomized & grouped
    • Animals will be pre-treated with Test Item/reference item (Omeprazole (OMZ) at 5mg/kg p.o.) for 7days
    • Body weight will be recorded daily
    • Animals will fast on Day 7
    • Administration of Indomethacin (50mg/kg p.o.) on day-8
    • After 4-6hr animals are humanely sacrificed
    • the stomach will be dissected out, weighed and gastric juice will be collected
    • Stomach will be scored for ulcer and sent for histopathological investigation
    End points
    • Body weight
    • Gastric pH
    • Gastric volume
    • Acidity
    • Estimation of Pepsin and mucin
    • Estimation of Pepsin and mucin
    • Ulcer index
    • Histopathology
    X
  • Gastric Emptying Model
    Model Gastric Emptying Using Charcoal Meal Test
    Test system Wistar rats, Male/Female, 150-170 g
    Reference Drug Metoclopramide, 10mg/kg,p.o.
    Method
    • One hour after the test item/reference drug administration each animal will be given 1 ml standard charcoal meal (10% activated charcoal suspension in 2.5% Na-CMC).
    • Intrarectal administration of TNBS for all the animalsAnimals will be sacrificed 1 h after the administration of the charcoal meal by cervical dislocation.Administration of test item for 7 days
    • Laparatomy will be done on the rats and the stomach will be removed after tying both the pyloric and the cardiac ends with a silk tread.
    • The full and empty stomach of each rat will be weighed.
    End points
    • Body weight
    • Weight of the charcoal in the stomach
    • % Meal Emptying
    X
  • Gastric Motility Model
    Model Gastric Motility Using Charcoal Meal Test
    Test system Wistar rats, Male/Female, 150-170 g
    Reference Drug Metoclopramide, 10mg/kg,p.o.
    Method
    • One hour after the test item/reference drug administration each animal will be given 1 ml standard charcoal meal (10% activated charcoal suspension in 2.5% Na-CMC).
    • Animals will be sacrificed 1 h after the administration of the charcoal meal by cervical dislocation.
    • Laparatomy will be done on the rats and small intestine will be isolated carefully.
    • The length of the small intestine from pylorus to the caecum and the distance traveled by the charcoal will be measured.
    • The peristaltic index for each animal will be calculated.
    End points
    • Body weight
    • Length of distance traveled by the charcoal meal
    • Peristaltic Index
    X
  • Liver Cirrhosis
  • Model for screening laxative effectiveness
    Model Propulsion of feces with and without atropine
    Test system BALB/c Mice
    Method Fasting of animals for 6hr Administration of test item (TI) at required dose administration of atropine(10mg/kg, i.p.) Monitoring the feces propulsion
    End points
    • Number of fecal pellets
    • Scoring of consistency of feces
    • Water content of feces
    • Weight of feces
    Model Pylorus ligation induced gastric ulce
    Test system Wistar rat
    Method Administration of test item (TI) at required dose and regimen. O/N fast the animals Surgical pylorus ligation in wistar rats Stomach gastric volume will be measured & ulcers will be counted & photographed
    End points
    • Gastric Volume, pH and Acidity
    • Photograph of Ulcerated stomach
    • Ulcer scoring & Index
    • % Activity
    Model Stress induced gastric ulcer
    Test system Wistar rat
    Method
    • Administration of test item (TI) at required dose.
    • Restrain the animals in 2-4oC for 2hr
    • Stomach ulcers will be counted & photographed
    End points
    • Photograph of Ulcerated stomach
    • Ulcer scoring & Index
    • % Activity
    X
    • Hepatoprotective
      Model Assessment of hepatoprotective activity using CCL4-induced liver injury model
      Test system Balb/c Mice, 8-12 weeks
      Method
      • Animals will be randomized & grouped.
      • nimals will be treated with Carbon tetra chloride (CCL4) at 0.4 mL/kg intraperitoneally twice a week for two weeks (on day 1, day 5, day 8 and day 12)
      • Administration of Test Item/reference item (Silymarin 200mg/kg) from day 8 to day 14
      • Body weight will be recorded daily
      • At the terminal stage, serum will be analyzed for liver enzyme markers viz. ALT, AST and Total cholesterol
      • Liver will be collected, weighed and will be sent for histopathological investigation.
      End points
      • Body weight
      • ALT, AST and Total cholesterol
      • Liver weight
      • Histopathology by H& E staining and Sirius Red (for fibrosis detection).
      Model Assessment of hepatoprotective activity of a molecule in Paracetamol (PCM) induced liver injury model.
      Test system Sprague dawley rat, 6-8 weeks
      Method
      • Animals will be randomized & grouped.
      • Animals will be treated with Paracetamol (PCM) at 1000mg/kg p.o. for 28 days.
      • Administration of Test Item/reference item (Silymarin at 100mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days.
      • Body weight and feed consumption will be recorded daily.
      • At the terminal stage, the serum will be analyzed for liver enzyme markers viz. ALT, AST, ALP and ? - GT.
      • The liver will be collected, weighed and will be sent for histopathological investigation.
      End points
      • Body weight
      • Length of distance traveled by the charcoal meal
      • Peristaltic Index
      X